Piping Engineering / Design Blog.



Posted by Antony Thomas at Wednesday, February 27, 2013



Accumulator: A pressure vessel charged with nitrogen gas and used to store hydraulic fluid under pressure for the operation of hydraulic valve actuators.


Actuator: A mechanical device or the remote or automatic operation of a valve or choke.


Annulus: Space between concentric casing strings.


Associated gas:  Naturally occurring reservoir gas found in association with oil, either dissolved in the oil or found as a cap or pocket of free gas above the oil.


Azimuthing thruster: Rotatable ducted propeller used in conjunction with a dynamic positioning system to enable ships to maintain position without the use of anchors.


Blowout: Uncontrolled release of well fluids from the well bore during drilling operations.


Bell Nipple: Receptacle attached to the top of the blowout preventer or marine drilling riser which directs the drilling mud returns to the shale shaker or mud pits.


BOP: Device attached to the casing head during drilling operations that allows the well to be sealed to confine the well fluids in the well bore.


Brownfield: An existing onshore or offshore facility, e.g. 'brownfield modification' is an upgrade to an existing facility.

Bubble point: Point at which dissolved gasses begin to vaporize from liquid. Dependent on temperature, pressure and gas/liquid composition.


Caisson: Length of pipe extending vertically downwards from an installation into the sea as a means of disposing of waste waters, or for the location of a sea water pump.


Casing: Pipe used to line and seal the well and prevent collapse off the borehole. A number of casing strings (Lengths) are used in ever decreasing diameters.


Cathodic protection: Corrosion protection system which relies on sacrificial anodes or impressed current to protect submerged steel components from corrosion by electrolytic action.


Clean Fuel: Fuel that has been modified such that, on combustion, it produces lower emissions.

Condensate: Volatile liquid consisting of the heavier hydrocarbon factions that condense out of the gas as it leaves the well, a mixture of pentanes and higher hydrocarbons.


Conductor: The first and largest diameter pipe to be inserted (spudded) into the seabed when drilling a well. It keeps the hole open, provides a return passage for the drilling mud and supports the subsequent casing strings.


Choke: A valve like device with a fixed or variable aperture specifically intended to regulate the flow of fluids.


Christmas tree: An assembly of valves attached to the wellhead and used to control well production.


Crossover: Item used to connect one component to another differing in size, thread type or pressure rating.


Debottlenecking: The process of increasing the production capacity of existing facilities through the modification of existing equipment to remove throughput restrictions.

Decommissioning:  The process for removal of a plant or piece of equipment from an operational state.

Dew point: Temperature at which liquids condense from a gas.


Downstream - The processing, refining and distribution of oil & gas.

Duster: Dry well drilled during exploration.


Dynamic positioning: Satellite monitoring system used to control the action of thruster propellers to maintain a vessel on location without deploying anchor.


Emergency shutdown valve (ESDV): An automatically operated normally open valve used for

Isolating a subsea pipeline.


Enhanced oil recovery: Means used to assist in the extraction of oil either by installing equipment into the production tubing or by injecting water or gas into the reservoir.


Front End Engineering Design (FEED):The stage of design between concept evaluation and detailed design during which the chosen concept is developed such that most key decisions can be taken. Output of FEED includes estimate of total installed cost and schedule.

Fire loop: A pneumatic control line containing temperature sensing elements (fusible plugs, synthetic tubing, etc.)  which, when activated, will initiate a platform shutdown.


Fiscal metering: The measurement of oil, gas or condensate flow rate for taxation purposes.


Flare stack: Elevated tower containing a pipe used for the discharge and burning of waste gases.


Flash drum: Pressure vessel used to lower the pressure of oils and other liquids involved with the production process in order to encourage the vaporization of dissolved gases.


Flowline: Piping which directs well fluids from wellheads to manifold or first process vessel.


Fluid: A generic term meaning a gas, vapor, liquid or combinations thereof.


Floating Production, Storage and Offloading Vessel (FPSO): A floating tank system designed to receive oil or gas produced from a nearby platform, process it, and store it until the oil or gas can be offloaded, or sent through a pipeline. They are typically used in deeper waters and often in conjunction with subsea facilities.

Grout: Mixture of cement and water (no sand) used to secure and seal attachments such as piles into jacket legs.


Greenfield: A new field development requiring new facilities, either onshore or offshore.

Header: That part of a manifold which directs fluid to a specific process system.


Hydrate: Solid, ice like compound consisting of molecules of water and hydrocarbon gasses.


Hydrocylone: Separation device utilizing centrifuging principles to remove oils from water, or as a multiclycone to remove liquids and, solids from a gas stream.


Heat affected zone (HAZ): That portion of the base metal which has not been melted, but whose mechanical properties or microstructure have been affected by the heat generated during the welding process.


Intrinsically safe: Electrical equipment which is incapable of igniting a flammable gas mixture or combustible materials.


Installation: May be fixed or mobile and used directly or indirectly for the exploration or production of mineral resources.


Installation, fixed: A fixed offshore Structure involved in the production of oil or gas which may be constructed of steel or concrete.


Jacket: Steel support framework used to support platform topsides.


J-T valve: Throttle valve used to reduce the pressure and temperature of a gas stream, associated, with the NGL removal process.


Knock out: Removal of liquids from a gas stream within a pressure vessel.


Lower explosive limit (LEL): The lowest concentration by volume of combustible gases in mixture with air that can be ignited at ambient temperature conditions.


LNG: Liquefied natural gas, gaseous at ambient temperatures and pressures but held in the liquid state by very low temperatures to facilitate storage and transportation in insulated vessels.


LNG Regasification - The process where LNG is reheated and turned into gas.

LPG: Liquefied petroleum gas, essentially propane and butane held in the liquid state under pressure to facilitate storage and transportation.


Manifold: An assembly of pipes, valves and fittings by which fluid from one or more sources is

selectively directed to various process systems.


Marine drilling riser: Pipe extending from the blowout preventer on the seabed to the drilling rig on the surface, to permit the return of the drilling mud.


Microwave: High frequency muIti-channel radio communications system designed to carry information between two points linked by line of sight transmission.


Midstream: Industry activities that fall between exploration & production (upstream) and refining & marketing (downstream). Usually refers to the storage and transportation of oil & gas, but in some cases describes the further processing of oil & gas from upstream processing facilities to allow for storage and transportation (see LNG).

Mobile installation: One which can be moved from place to place without major dismantling or modification.


Module: Self-contained liftable package forming part of the topside facilities of an offshore installation. E.g. accommodation module, compressor module, drilling module etc..


Multiphase: Practice of flowing unsterilized well fluids (oil with high gas content) in a single pipeline by boosting the pressure to prevent vaporization of the dissolved gasses.


Natural gas: Hydrocarbon gas occurring naturally from underground reservoirs both on and offshore.


NGL: Natural gas liquids, a mixture of hydrocarbon liquids which include butane and ethane obtained from natural gas. May be produced from condensate reservoirs but more probably produced as a byproduct of oil production.


Nipple: A section of threaded or socket welded pipe used as an appurtenance that is less than 12 inches in length. Often used to describe any short length of open ended pipe.


Nozzle: Flanged inlet or outlet connection on a pressure vessel.


Mudline: Seabed.


Packer: Device for sealing one casing string from another, or from the production tubing.


Pedestal: Large diameter, vertical tube or tub onto which a crane is attached.


Photogrammetric: The use of still 'photography to capture dimensional information for transposing into drawings.


Pig: Spherical device inserted in to a gas subsea pipeline to sweep the line of deposits of rust, scale and condensed liquids. May also be used to clean oil pipelines of wax and may be "intelligent", that is containing measuring and inspection equipment.


Pig trap: A pressure chamber permitting the entry or removal of equipment into the subsea pipeline, normally pigs.


Pipeline: Piping used to convey fluids between platforms or between a platform and a shore facility.


Pipe spool: Single length of pipe with flanged ends.


Platform, offshore: A fixed offshore structure involved in the production of oil or gas which may be constructed of steel or concrete. Term used frequently to describe an offshore installation.


Pressure vessel: Container, normally cylindrical used to contain internal or occasionally external pressure.


Produced water: Formation water removed from the oil and gas in the process pressure vessels.


Production separator: Main process vessel used primarily for the separation of gas, oil (and

condensate) and water.


Production tubing: Pipe used in wells to conduct fluid from the producing formation into the Christmas tree. Unlike the casing the tubing is designed to be replaced during the life of the well, if required.


Purge: Maintain gas flow in an over rich, or lean concentration so as to avoid the buildup of oxygen and an explosive mixture.


Quality assurance: A sequence of planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements of quality.


Quality control: The operational techniques and activities that are used to ensure that a quality product or service will be produced.

Rig: A term normally associated with drilling equipment, that is to say a drilling rig. Also a slang term used extensively to describe any of the structures and vessels associated with oil and gas exploration and production.

Riser: The vertical portion of a subsea pipeline (including the bottom bend) arriving on or departing from a platform.

Rock dumping: Deposition of rocks onto subsea pipelines to provide protection against anchors and fisherman’s nets when burying the pipe is impractical. Rocks and gravel may also be dumped around subsea wellheads and jacket legs to repair scour damage.

Seismic survey: The use of artificially generated sound waves to determine the type of rock formations below the ground or under the sea bed by monitoring the reflected sound wave signals.

Scour: Removal of the seabed in the vicinity of a jacket, subsea wellhead or pipeline by tidal action.

Scrubber: Pressure vessel containing equipment designed to remove or scrub liquids from a gas stream.

Shuttle tanker: Moderate-sized oil tanker used to transport oil from larger vessels into port.

Skid: Steel framework used to contain equipment, may be transportable.

Stress corrosion cracking: The cracking which results from a combination of stress and corrosion.

Slew ring bearing: Large ball or roller bearing which connects crane to pedestal and permits rotation.

Slug: An accumulation of water (may also be sand or condensate) in a gas pipeline.

Spudding: A term used to describe the insertion of the conductor into the seabed when drilling a well. May also be used to describe the process of setting the legs of a jack-up into the seabed.

Stinger: Tubular steel support frame attached to the stem of a pipelay barge to control the bending of the pipe as it enters the water.

Stripping: The removal or replacement of drill pipe or tubing strings from a well under pressure using a stripping BOP.

Stripping Gas – Gas, normally process gas used to assist in the purification of a liquid by reducing the partial pressure of gaseous contaminants to encourage vaporization.

Swabbing: The lowering of the hydrostatic pressure in the hole due to the upward movement of the drill pipe and/or tools. Also the use of wireline equipment to clean a well by scooping out liquids.

Sulphide stress cracking: Cracking of metallic materials due to exposure to fluids containing hydrogen sulphide.

Subsea Tiebacks: A method of connecting new discoveries to existing production facilities, improving the economics of offshore oil & gas production.

Telemetry:  System for the collection, collation and transformation to a remote source using radio, satellite, fiber optics or cable links. Also associated with the remote control of process equipment.


Throttle: Regulation of fluid flow by a throttling valve or fixed orifice.


Topsides: Upper part of a fixed installation which sits on top of the jacket and consists of the decks, accommodation and process equipment.


Upstream: The development and production of oil and gas.

Vent: A pipe or fitting on a vessel that can be opened to the atmosphere.


Vent stack: Open ended pipe and support framework used to discharge vapours into the atmosphere at a safe location above the installation without combustion.


Water Injection - The process where water is injected back into the oil reservoir to maintain or increase pressure and stimulate production.

Wellhead: Permanent equipment used to secure and seal the casings and production tubing and to provide a mounting place for the Christmas trees.


Wireline: Equipment used to introduce tools into the well bore under pressure.


Workover: Re-entry into a completed well for modification or repair work.


Workover rig: Normally a smaller, portable version of the main drilling derrick which can be used to carry our work over operations on installations which do not have a permanent derrick.



Posted by Antony Thomas at Sunday, February 24, 2013

I found this useful Book (Valve Handbook) while browsing internet and I thought to share this with our pipers.


1. Introduction to Valves
2. Valve selection criteria
3. Manual Valves
4. Control Valves
5. Manual Operators and Actuators
6. Smart Valves and Positioners
7. Valve Sizing
8. Actuator Sizing
9. Common Valve Problems


Valve Book by 22_22


Posted by Antony Thomas at Saturday, February 23, 2013


This video shows in PDMS model editor how to move the valve assembly across the elbows.

If you like the video pls click g+. Thank you. For more PDMS tips & Tricks click here PDMS Piping Videos

Piping Designer -Foster Wheeler Singapore

Posted by Antony Thomas at Thursday, February 21, 2013

  Piping Designer Foster Wheeler Asia Pacific
 CompanyFoster Wheeler Asia Pacific
 Education• Diploma in Mechanical Engineering with 4 to 7 years experience in Refinery / Petrochemical / Chemical / Power Plants.
 Experience• Through knowledge of Equipment layout Development, Piping layout design for all types of equipments such as Vessels, Exchangers, Tanks, Pumps, Compressors etc and Piping MTO. • Familiar and hands on experience with design and drafting tools like PDS/SPR/SP3D, Microstation, Autocad, I sketch etc. • Candidates with more years experience may be considered for a Senior position
 Duties• Executing the assigned design and drafting activities following the instructions given by the Area Piping Engineer in accordance with the quality system in force within the Discipline, job requirements, and time schedule. • Developing Plot plan and Equipment layouts under the supervision and following the instructions of Area Piping Engineer according to the established Technical Work Practices. • Developing 2D Piping General Arrangement Drawings under the supervision and following the instructions of Area Piping Engineer according to the established Technical Work Practices • Developing 3D model based on the study layouts under the supervision and following the instructions of Area Piping Engineer according to the established Technical Work Practices. • Prepare Isometric sketches for all Stress critical lines with the possible support locations and assist the stress engineer to carry out stress analysis. • Assist, Remodel and Update the model based on the Internal, Client reviews, latest Supplier information and Isometric checking comments and maintain the clash free model.
 RelocationNot Available
 Or contact:

Piping designers required for Brunei

Posted by Antony Thomas at Tuesday, February 19, 2013

Dear Candidate,

We are urgently seeking for interested candidates to undertake the following positions below for BRUNEI. Positions are Permanent. If you are interested, send us your updated CV and provide us with the following information as per below requested.

1. Current All-In Salary :
2. Expected All-In Salary (In Brunei $) :
3. Earliest Availability :
4. Required Notice Period :
5. Married or Single Status :
6. Able to write Technical Report? (If Yes, please provide copy of previous written report) :
7. Copy of Qualification Certificates:
8. Copy of Working Testimonials:
1 Designer
C & A Designer
Civil Designer
Structural Designer
Electrical Designer
Pipeline Designer
Piping Designer – NEED 11
Senior Mechanical Designer
Senior Structural Designer
Lead Pipeline Designer
C & A Engineer
Electrical Engineer
Planning Engineer
Project Engineer
Assistant Planning Engineer
Senior C & A Engineer
Senior Process Engineer
Lead Civil Engineer
Lead Electrical
Lead Structural Engineer

Our preference would be candidates from the following companies:

1. Aker Kwarner, Mumbai

2. Petrofac, Mumbai

3. Technip, Mumbai

4. Uhde India, Mumbai

5. L&T Valdel, Bangalore

6. Toyo Engineering India, Mumbai

7. Worley Parsons, Mumbai

8. Tata Consulting Engineers, Mumbai

9. Engineers India Limited, Delhi

10. Foster Wheeler, Chennai

Your earliest reply shall be highly appreciated.

Kindly acknowledge receipt of the same per return.

With warm regards,

Bhuvan Kumar
Engineering Manpower Consultants (Oil & Gas)

Bhuvankumar Consulting, India
Mob: +91-9873720765, 9212575722
Web :
Alternate email:
Please note: We do not charge any sort of fees whatsoever from the Candidates.

Steam Trap in Piping

Posted by Antony Thomas at Thursday, February 14, 2013

What is a Steam Trap?

ANSI’s definition for Steam trap - Self contained valve which automatically drains the condensate from a steam containing enclosure while remaining tight to live steam, or if necessary, allowing steam to flow at a controlled or adjusted rate. Most steam traps will also pass non-condensable gases while remaining tight to live steam.
ANSI/FCI 69-1-1989

Steam traps are a type of automatic valve that filters out condensate (i.e. condensed steam) and non-condensable gases such as air without letting steam escape.

Steam traps to discharge air and condensate while not permitting the escape of live steam
Steam Trap’s goal is to ‘purify’ the steam of excess air and water (condensate) to :
Improve efficiency (Excess water or air in the system prevents it from reaching operating temperature quickly during start-up)
Protect system (Inadequate steam trapping can lead to waterhammer, corrosion, leakage, and high maintenance costs)
Provide maximum heat transfer (‘dry’ steam has best heat transfer properties in equipment like a heat exchanger)

Types of Steam Taps:

1. Mechanical steam traps -

Have a float that rises and falls in relation to condensate level and this usually has a mechanical linkage attached that opens and closes the valve. Operate in direct relationship to condensate levels present in the body of the steam trap.

2. Temperature steam traps - Have a valve that moves in/out of position by either expansion/contraction caused by temperature change. Some condensate builds up as it cools sufficiently to allow the valve to open. In most circumstances this is not desirable as condensate needs to be removed as soon as it is formed.

3. Thermostatic steam traps - Work on the difference in response to velocity change in flow of compressible and incompressible fluids. As steam enters, static pressure above the disk forces the disk against the valve seat. The static pressure over a large area overcomes the high inlet pressure of the steam. As the steam starts to condense, the pressure against the disk lessens and the trap opens to allow condensate out.

2.Temperature steam traps -

Have a valve that moves in/out of position by either expansion/contraction caused by temperature change. Some condensate builds up as it cools sufficiently to allow the valve to open. In most circumstances this is not desirable as condensate needs to be removed as soon as it is formed. 

3.Thermodynamic steam traps -

Work on the difference in response to velocity change in flow of compressible and incompressible fluids. As steam enters, static pressure above the disk forces the disk against the valve seat. The static pressure over a large area overcomes the high inlet pressure of the steam. As the steam starts to condense, the pressure against the disk lessens and the trap opens to allow condensate out. 

Animation Courtesy from


Posted by Antony Thomas at






Span (mm)






























































































































1. Lines uninsulated- Insulated to be considered on an individual basis.



2. Max Pressure = 14 bar and Max temp  = 50 deg C.




3. Spans based on simply supported beam principle without allowance for extraneous loadings.

4. Material used 'Kunifer 10' (90/10 Copper/Nickel/Fe).




5. Corrosion Allowance 0.5mm.




6. All lines assumed full of water.




7. Youngs modulus of elasticity = 19.5 x 10^6 PSI.




8. Pipe Deflection between supports limited to 0.375"





Keywords: Cupronickel, CuNi Pipe Span, Pipe span Cupronickel

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