Piping Engineering / Design Blog.



Posted by Antony Thomas at Thursday, May 28, 2009


1. What factors to consider for site selection?
Ans : District classification, Transportation facilities, Manpower
availability, industrial infrastructure, community infrastructure, availability
of raw water, effluent disposal, availability of power, availability of
industrial gas, site size and nature, ecology and pollution.

2. What are different standards?
Ans : Most commonly use standards are as follows:
Sr. Standard Description
1. ANSI B18.2 Square and hexagola head bolts and nuts
2. ANSI B16.3 Malleable iron threaded fittings
3. ANSI B16.4 Cast iron threaded fittings.
4. ANSI B16.9 Steel buttwelding fittings
5. ANSI B16.11 Forged steel socketwelding and threaded fittings
6. ANSI B16.25 Buttwelding ends
7. ANSI B16.28 Short elbow radius and returns
8. MSS-SP-43 Stainless steel buttweld fittings
9. MSS-SP-83 Pipe Unions
10. API 605 Large diameter carbon steel flanges
11. ANSI B16.1 Cast iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings
12. ANSI B16.5 Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings
13. ANSI B16.47 Large diameter steel pipe flanges and flanged fitts.
14. ANSI B16.20 Ring joint gaskets and grooves for pipe flanges
15. ANSI B16.21 Non metallic gaskets for pipe flanges
16. API 601 Metallic gasket for refinery piping.
17. API 5L Specification for line pipe.
18. ANSI B16.10 Welded and seamless wrought steel pipes
19. ANSI B36.19 Welded and seamless austenitic stainless steel pipe
20. ANSI B16.10 Face to face and end to end dimensions of valves
21. ANSI B16.34 Steel valves, flanged and buttwelding ends.

3. What are various temporary closures for lines?
Ans : Line blind valve, line blind, spectacle plate, double block and bleed,
blind flanges replacing a removable spool.

4. Where jacked screwed flange is used ?
Ans : For spectacle discs, one flange is jacked screw flange. This flange
has two jacked screws 180 degree apart which are used to create
sufficient space between flange for easy removal and placement of line
blind or spectacle blind.

5. What is double block and bleed?
Ans : Two valves with bleed ring in between with a bleed valve connected
to the hole of bleed ring.

6. Where blind flange is used ?
Ans : It is used with view to future expansion of the piping system, or for
cleaning, inspection etc.


7. What are crude oil ranges?
Ans : Crude oil BP Range: 100F-1400F, lightest material: Butene below
100F, Heavier materials- upto 800F, Residue above 800F.

8. What is batch shell process?
Ans : feed, heat,condense,heat more,condense, low quality.

9. What are types of towers?
Ans : Stripper, Vacuum tower, trayed, packed towers.

10. What is chimney tray?
Ans : It’s a solid plate with central chimney section, used at drawoff
sections of the tower.

11. What factors to consider while setting tower elevation?
Ans : NPSH, Operator access, Maintenance access, Minimum clearance,
reboiler type , common area, type of support, Tower dimensions, type of
head, bottom outlet size, foundation details, minimum clearances.

12. How to locate tower maintenance access nozzles ?
Ans : At bottom, top and intermediate sections of tower, must not be at
the downcomer section of tower and in front of internal piping.

13. How to locate feed nozzle ?
Ans : Must be oriented in specific area of tray by means of internal

14. How to locate temperature and pressure instruments ?
Ans : Temperature in liquid space, at downcomer side and pressure in
vapor space, in area except downcomer sector.
If you find this questionnaire is useful, please share with your friends using share button on the left side.



Posted by Antony Thomas at Tuesday, May 05, 2009



1. What are the types of compressors?
Ans : Positive Displacement, Centrifugal and Axial, rotary screw, rotary
vane, rotary lobe, dynamic, liquid ring compressors.

2. What are types of compressor drives?
Ans : Electric motor, gas turbine, steam turbine and gas engine.

3. How Centrifugal compressors work ?
Ans : Highspeed impellers increase the kinetic energy of the gas,
converting this energy into higher pressures in a divergent outlet passage
called a diffuser. Large volume of gas at moderate pressure.

4. What are types of steam turbine and why are they popular?
Ans : Condensing and non-condensing, Popular because can convert
large amounts of heat energy into mechanical work very efficiently.

5. Where gas turbine drive is used ?
Ans : Desserts and offshore platforms where gas is available, for gas
transmission, gas lift, liquid pumping, gas re-injection and process

6. What are the auxillary equipments of compressor?
Ans : Lube oil consoles, Seal oil consoles, Surface condensers,
Condensate pump, Air blowers, Inlet air filters, Wast heat system,
compressor suction drum, knock out pot, Pulsation dampner, volume
bottles, Inter and after coolers.

7. What are the types of seal oil system?
Ans : Gravity and pressurized.

8. What factors to be considered while designing compressor housing?
Ans : Operation, Maintenance, Climate conditions, Safety, Economics.

9. What are the compressor housing design points?
Ans : Floor elevation, building width, building elevation, hook centerline

10. What are the types of compressor cases?
Ans : Horizontal split case, Vertical split case.

11. What are compressor suction line requirements ?
Ans : Minimum 3D straight pipe between elbow and inlet nozzle,
increases based on inlet piping layout. 4D

12. What are necessary parts of inlet line of compressor?
Ans : Block Valve, Strainer, Break out flanges in both inlet and outlet to
remove casing covers, Straightening vane in inlet line if not enough
straight piece in inlet line available, PSV in interstage line and in
discharge line before block valve.

13. What points to be considered for reciprocating compressor piping
Ans : High pulsation, simple line as low to grade as possible for
supporting, analog study, all branches close to line support and on top,
Isolate line support from adjacent compressor or building foundations

14. What are the types of compressor shelters?
Ans : On ground with no shelter, Open sided structure with a roof,
Curtain wall structure (Temperate climates), Open elevated installation,
Elevated multicompressor structure.


15. What are drum internals?
Ans : Demister pads, Baffles, Vortex breakers, Distribution piping.

16. What are drum elevation requirements?
Ans : NPSH, minimum clearance, common platforming, maintenance,
operator access.

17. What are drum supports?
Ans : Skirt for large drums, legs, lugs, saddles for horizontal drums.

18. What are necessary nozzles for non-pressure vessel?
Ans : Inlet, outlet, vent, manhole, drain, overflow, agitator, temperature
element, level instrument, and steamout connection.

19. What are necessary nozzles for pressure vessel?
Ans : Inlet, outlet, manhole, drain, pressure relief, agitator, level guage,
pressure gauge, temperature element, vent and for steamout.

20. What is preferred location for level instrument nozzles?
Ans : Away from the turbulence at the liquid outlet nozzle, although the
vessel is provided with a vortex breaker, instrument should be set in the
quiet zone of the vessel for example on the opposite side of the weir or
baffle or near the vapor outlet end.

21. What is preferred location for process nozzles on drum?
Ans : Minimum from the tangent line.

22. What is preferred location for steam out nozzle on drum?
Ans : At the end opposite to the maintenance access.

23. What is preferred location for vent ?
Ans : AT the top section of drum at the end opposite the steam out

24. What is preferred location for pressure instrument nozzle on drum?
Ans : Must be anywhere in the vapor space, preferable at the top section
of drum

25. What is preferred location for temperature instrument?
Ans : Must be in liquid space, preferably on the bottom section of drum.

26. What is preferred location for drain?
Ans : Must be located at the bottom section of drum.

See Also:




Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger... follow us in feedly

Popular Posts

Piping Info