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Useful Piping Calculations Pressure drop/ Control Valve

Posted by Antony Thomas at Friday, October 23, 2009

Useful Piping Calculations



Pressure drop calculation - theory
Pipe diameter calculation - theory
Control valve sizing calculation
Control valve sizing calculation - theory
Venturi tube flow calculation
Venturi tube flow calculation - theory
Orifice plate flow calculation
Orifice plate flow calculation - theory
Tables of fluid physical properties
Physical properties of dry air
Physical properties of gases


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Valve Sizing Calculations download
NPSH Calculator For Process Engineer
PIPE SELECTION AND FRICTION LOSS CALCULATION

Valve Sizing Calculations download

Posted by Antony Thomas at

Valve Sizing Calculations



Improper valve sizing can be both expensive and inconvenient. A valve that is too small will not pass the required flow, and the process will be starved. An oversized valve will be more expensive, and it may lead to instability and other problems. The days of selecting a valve based upon the size of the pipeline are gone. Selecting the correct valve size for a given application requires a knowledge of process conditions that the valve will actually see in service. The technique for using this information to size the valve is based upon a combination of theory and experimentation.

• Sizing For Liquid Service

• Viscosity Corrections

• Finding Valve Size

• Nomograph Instructions

• Nomograph Equations

• Nomograph Procedure

• Predicting Flow Rate

• Predicting Pressure Drop

• Flashing and Cavitation

• Choked Flow

• Liquid Sizing Summary

• Liquid Sizing Nomenclature

• Sizing for Gas or Steam Service

• Universal Gas Sizing Equation

• General Adaptation for Steam and Vapors

• Special Equation Form for Steam Below 1000 psig

• Gas and Steam Sizing Summary

• Gas and Steam Sizing Nomenclature

• Sizing For Liquid Service

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SEE ALSO:
Valve Sizing Calculations download
NPSH Calculator For Process Engineer
PIPE SELECTION AND FRICTION LOSS CALCULATION

NPSH Calculator For Process Engineer

Posted by Antony Thomas at

NPSH Calculator For Process Engineer


NPSH Calculator Excel download. Very useful download for Process Engineers.

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SEE ALSO:
Valve Sizing Calculations download
NPSH Calculator For Process Engineer
PIPE SELECTION AND FRICTION LOSS CALCULATION

PIPE SELECTION AND FRICTION LOSS CALCULATION

Posted by Antony Thomas at

PIPE SELECTION AND FRICTION LOSS CALCULATION



Index:
INTRODUCTION
COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS
PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS
BASIC FLOW DYNAMICS IN PIPES
ENERGY REQUIREMENT TO PUMP A FLUID THROUGH A PIPE
CALCULATIONS OF FRICTION COEFFICIENTS IN PIPES
COMMENTS ON THE MOODY DIAGRAM
PRESSURE DROP DUE TO FITTINGS AND VALVES IN PIPES
PRESSURE DROP DUE TO CHANGES IN PIPE DIAMETER
RECOMMENDED FLUID VELOCITIES IN PIPES
FLOW CALCULATOR SAMPLES


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SEE ALSO:
Valve Sizing Calculations download
NPSH Calculator For Process Engineer
PIPE SELECTION AND FRICTION LOSS CALCULATION

Posted by Antony Thomas at

Introduction

Applicability

Definitions

Tank System Requirements

Existing vs New Tank Systems
Information Required & Contents of the Part B application for
Written Assessment of Tank
Critical Elements of a Written Assessment
Discussion of Critical Elements/Examples
Tank Analysis and Design General
Tank Analysis and Design - Specific
Tank Foundation Analysis and Design -General
Tank Foundation Analysis and Design - Specific
Tank Ancillary Equipment Analysis and Design - General
Tank Ancillary Equipment Analysis and Design - Specific
Secondary Containment Analysis and Design - General
Secondary Containment Analysis and Design - Specific
Installation Certification requirements

List of References
Tank System Completeness Evaluation Checklist
Certification Statement for Written Assessment for the Design of the Tank System
Certification Statement for the Installation of the Tank System

DOWNLOAD

SEE ALSO:
Valve Sizing Calculations download
NPSH Calculator For Process Engineer
PIPE SELECTION AND FRICTION LOSS CALCULATION

Piping Design Reference Info

Posted by Antony Thomas at Sunday, October 18, 2009

NG DIMENSIONS (M)
MC CHANNELS
150# RF PIPING DIMENSIONS
ANGLES
300# RF PIPING DIMENSIONS (M)
W TEES
300# RF PIPING DIMENSIONS
S TEES
600# RF PIPING DIMENSIONS (M)
TUBING
600# RF PIPING DIMENSIONS
GRATING
900# RF PIPING DIMENSIONS (M)
BOLTS
900# RF PIPING DIMENSIONS
GIRDER WT
1500# RF PIPING DIMENSIONS (M)
STRUCTURAL PLATES WEIGHTS
1500# RF PIPING DIMENSIONS
BRACE FORMULAS
900# RJT PIPING DIMENSIONS (M)
RIGHT TRIANGLE
900# RJT PIPING DIMENSIONS
OBLIQUE TRIANGLE
1500# RJT PIPING DIMENSIONS (M)
ADDING CALCULATOR
1500# RJT PIPING DIMENSIONS
LADDERS
SCREWED FITTINGS (M)
STAIRS
SCREWED FITTINGS
VESSEL PLATFORM
WELDOLETS (M)
PIPE TABLES
WELDOLETS
ELLIPCE HEAD DIM
W SHAPES
PIPE SPANS
M SHAPES
ELL's
S SHAPES
TEE's & REDUCERS
HP SHAPES
FLANGES
C

 

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CODES AND STANDARDS USED IN PIPING ENGINEERING

Posted by Antony Thomas at Tuesday, September 01, 2009

CODES AND STANDARDS USED IN PIPING ENGINEERING



WHY IT IS REQUIRED• Selection of proper material aSd detail out the material specification.
• Standardization can and does reduce cost, inconvenience and confusion that result from unnecessary and undesirable difference in systems.
• One of main objective of each code is to ensure public and industrial safety.


DEFINITIONS
Industry standard are published by professional societies, committees and trade organizations. It can be broadly classified into the following categories......
• CODE
• STANDARDS
• RECOMMENDED PRACTICES


CODE
A group of general rules r systematic procedures for design, fabrication, installation and inspection prepared in such a manner that it can be adopted by legal jurisdiction and made into law.


STANDARDS
Documents prepared by a professional group or committee which are believed to be good and proper engineering practices and which contain mandatory requirements.


RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
Documents prepared by a professional group or committee indicating good engineering practices but which are optional.


STANDARDS FOR PIPING DESIGN• ASMEB31.1: Powerpiping
• ASME B31.2: Fuel Gas piping.
• ASME B31.3: Process piping.
• ASME B31.4: Pipeline Transportation system for liquid Hydrocarbon and other liquids
• ASMEB31.5: Refrigeration piping.
• ASME B31.8: Gas Transmission and Distribution piping.


STANDARDS FOR PIPING COMPONENTS

PIPES:

1. B36.10M: Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipes
2. B36.19M: Stainless Steel Pipes


Flanges:
1. B16.5: Steel Pipe flanges and flanged fittings
2. B16.47: Large diameter steel flanges
3. B16.48: Steel Line Blanks
4. API 5L: Line Pipe.




FITTINGS:

1) B 16.9: Factory Made Wrought Steel Butt- Welding Fitting
2) B 16.11: Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding & Threaded

VALVES:

1) API 594: Wafer And Wafer Lug And Double Flanged Check Valve
2) API 599: Metal Plug Valves-Tanged & Welding Ends
3) API 600: Steel Gate Valves - Flanged and Butt Welding Ends, Bolted and Pressure Seal Bonnet
4) API 6D: Pipe line valves, End closures,Counselors end swivels
5) API 593:Ductile Iron Plug Valves- Flanged ends.
6) API 600: Steel gate valves.
7) BS 1414: Steel Wedge Gate Valves flanged Cud Butt Welding Ends)
8) BS 1868: Steel Check Valves) flanged & Butt Welding Ends)
9) BS 1873: Steel Globe, Globe stop cud Check Valves )Flanged & butt welding ends.
10)BS 5351: Steel Ball Valves
11)BS/EN 593: Specification for Butterfly valves
12)BS 5352:Steel Wedge Gate, Globe and Check Valves 50mm and Smaller
13)BS 5353:Steel Plug Valves
14)Bd 6364:Valves For Cryogenic Services

GASKETS:
1)B 16.53:Metallic Gaskets for Steel pipe flanges, ring joint, Spirel-Wound, and gasketed.

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DESIGN BASES: PIPING DESIGN

Posted by Antony Thomas at Sunday, August 16, 2009

DESIGN BASES: PIPING DESIGN




Wind Load:


The majority of all piping system installations are indoors where the effects of wind
loading can be neglected. However, there are sufficient numbers of outdoor piping
installations where wind loading can be a significant design factor. Wind load, like
deadweight, is a uniformly distributed load that acts along the entire length, or that portion of the piping system that is exposed to the wind. The difference is that
while deadweight loads are oriented in the downward vertical direction, wind loads
are horizontally oriented and may act in any arbitrary direction. Since wind loads
are oriented in the horizontal direction, the regular deadweight support system of
hangers and anchors may have little or no ability to resist these loads. Consequently,when wind loading is a factor, a separate structural evaluation and wind load supportsystem design is required.

Determination of the magnitude of the wind loadings is based upon empirical
procedures developed for the design of buildings and other outdoor structures.
Analysis of piping system stresses and support system loads is accomplished by
using techniques that are similar to those applied for deadweight design.



Snow and Ice Loads:


Snow and ice loads, like wind loads, need to be considered in the design of piping
systems which are installed outdoors, particularly if the installation is made in the
northern latitudes. Since snow and ice loads act in the vertical direction, they are
treated the same as deadweight loads. In design, they are simply added as distributed
loads in the deadweight analysis.


Snow Loads.


ANSI/ASCE 7–95, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other
Structures, provides recommendations and data for developing design loadings due
to snow. The methods used in this standard are generally applicable to sloping or
horizontal flat surfaces such as building roofs or grade slabs.

Ice Loads:


Ice storms are sporadic in the frequency of their occurrence and in
their intensity. Weather records dating back to the turn of the 20th century for a
typical midwestern state relate instances of ice storm deposits of 1/8 in (3.2 mm) to
4 in (102 mm) in thickness. The American Weather Book10 cites examples of ice
accumulations of up to 8 in (203 mm) in northern Idaho (1961) and 6 in (152 mm)
in northwest Texas (1940) and New York State (1942).


Seismic (Earthquake) Loads


Under certain circumstances it is necessary or desirable to design a piping system to
withstand the effects of an earthquake. Although the applications are not extensive,
piping system seismic design technology is well developed and readily accessible.
Many currently available piping stress analysis computer programs are capable of
performing a detailed seismic structural and stress analysis, in addition to the
traditional deadweight and thermal flexibility analyses. Most of these programs run
on desktop microcomputers.
Because of the higher construction costs and design complexities introduced by
the application of seismic design criteria, this type of work is normally done only
in response to specific regulatory, code, or contractual requirements.

EXTRACTED FROM PIPING HAND BOOK

PIPING HANDBOOK DOWNLOAD PDF

Posted by Antony Thomas at Friday, August 14, 2009

PIPING HANDBOOK

Part A: Piping Fundamentals



Chapter A1. Introduction to Piping Mohinder L. Nayyar A.1
Chapter A2. Piping Components Ervin L. Geiger A.53
Chapter A3. Piping Materials James M. Tanzosh A.125
Chapter A4. Piping Codes and Standards Mohinder L. Nayyar A.179
Chapter A5. Manufacturing of Metallic Piping Daniel R. Avery and
Alfred Lohmeier A.243
Chapter A6. Fabrication and Installation of Piping Edward F. Gerwin A.261
Chapter A7. Bolted Joints Gordon Britton A.331
Chapter A8. Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe and Fittings
Richard E. Deremiah A.397
Chapter A9. Grooved and Pressfit Piping Systems
Louis E. Hayden, Jr. A.417
v
vi CONTENTS
Chapter A10. Selection and Application of Valves Mohinder L. Nayyar,
Dr. Hans D. Baumann A.459

Part B: Generic Design Considerations


Chapter B1. Hierarchy of Design Documents Sabin Crocker, Jr. B.1
Chapter B2. Design Bases Joseph H. Casiglia B.19
Chapter B3. Piping Layout Lawrence D. Lynch,
Charles A. Bullinger, Alton B. Cleveland, Jr. B.75
Chapter B4. Stress Analysis of Piping Dr. Chakrapani Basavaraju,
Dr. William Saifung Sun B.107
Chapter B5. Piping Supports Lorenzo Di Giacomo, Jr.,
Jon R. Stinson B.215
Chapter B6. Heat Tracing of Piping Chet Sandberg,
Joseph T. Lonsdale, J. Erickson B.241
Chapter B7. Thermal Insulation of Piping Kenneth R. Collier,
Kathleen Posteraro B.287
Chapter B8. Flow of Fluids Dr. Tadeusz J. Swierzawski B.351
Chapter B9. Cement-Mortar and Concrete Linings for Piping
Richard E. Deremiah B.469
Chapter B10. Fusion Bonded Epoxy Internal Linings and External
Coatings for Pipeline Corrosion Protection Alan Kehr B.481
Chapter B11. Rubber Lined Piping Systems Richard K. Lewis,
David Jentzsch B.507
CONTENTS vii
Chapter B12. Plastic Lined Piping for Corrosion Resistance
Michael B. Ferg, John M. Kalnins B.533
Chapter B13. Double Containment Piping Systems
Christopher G. Ziu B.569
Chapter B14. Pressure and Leak Testing of Piping Systems
Robert B. Adams, Thomas J. Bowling B.651

Part C: Piping Systems


Chapter C1. Water Systems Piping Michael G. Gagliardi,
Louis J. Liberatore C.1
Chapter C2. Fire Protection Piping Systems Russell P. Fleming,
Daniel L. Arnold C.53
Chapter C3. Steam Systems Piping Daniel A. Van Duyne C.83
Chapter C4. Building Services Piping Mohammed N. Vohra,
Paul A. Bourquin C.135
Chapter C5. Oil Systems Piping Charles L. Arnold, Lucy A. Gebhart C.181
Chapter C6. Gas Systems Piping Peter H. O. Fischer C.249
Chapter C7. Process Systems Piping Rod T. Mueller C.305
Chapter C8. Cryogenic Systems Piping Dr. N. P. Theophilos,
Norman H. White, Theodore F. Fisher, Robert Zawierucha,
M. J. Lockett, J. K. Howell, A. R. Belair, R. C. Cipolla,
Raymond Dale Woodward C.391
Chapter C9. Refrigeration Systems Piping William V. Richards C.457
viii CONTENTS
Chapter C10. Hazardous Piping Systems Ronald W. Haupt C.533
Chapter C11. Slurry and Sludge Systems Piping Ramesh L. Gandhi C.567
Chapter C12. Wastewater and Stormwater Systems Piping
Dr. Ashok L. Lagvankar, John P. Velon C.619
Chapter C13. Plumbing Piping Systems Michael Frankel C.667
Chapter C14. Ash Handling Piping Systems Vincent C. Ionita,
Joel H. Aschenbrand C.727
Chapter C15. Compressed Air Piping Systems Michael Frankel C.755
Chapter C16. Compressed Gases and Vacuum Piping Systems
Michael Frankel C.801
Chapter C17. Fuel Gas Distribution Piping Systems Michael Frankel C.839

Part D: Nonmetallic Piping


Chapter D1. Thermoplastics Piping Dr. Timothy J. McGrath,
Stanley A. Mruk D.1
Chapter D2. Fiberglass Piping Systems Carl E. Martin D.79

Part E: Appendices


Appendix E1. Conversion Tables Ervin L. Geiger E.1
Appendix E2. Pipe Properties (US Customary Units)
Dr. Chakrapani Basavaraju E.13

CONTENTS ix
Appendix E2M. Pipe Properties (Metric) Dr. Chakrapani Basavaraju E.23
Appendix E3. Tube Properties (US Customary Units) Ervin L. Geiger E.31
Appendix E3M. Tube Properties (Metric) Troy J. Skillen E.37
Appendix E4. Friction Loss for Water in Feet per 100 Feet of Pipe E.39
Appendix E4M. Friction Loss for Water in Meters per 100 Meters of
Pipe Troy J. Skillen E.59
Appendix E5. Acceptable Pipe, Tube and Fitting Materials per
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the ASME Pressure
Piping Code Jill M. Hershey E.61
Appendix E6. International Piping Material Specifications
R. Peter Deubler E.69
Appendix E7. Miscellaneous Fluids and Their Properties Akhil Prakash E.83
Appendix E8. Miscellaneous Materials and Their Properties
Akhil Prakash E.101
Appendix E9. Piping Related Computer Programs and Their
Capabilities Anthony W. Paulins E.109
Appendix E10. International Standards and Specifications for Pipe, Tube,
Fittings, Flanges, Bolts, Nuts, Gaskets and Valves Soami D. Suri





See Also:

Piping Materials Selection and Applications

TYPES OF PIPING JOINTS

Posted by Antony Thomas at

PIPING JOINTS


Joint design and selection can have a major impact on the initial installed cost, the
long-range operating and maintenance cost, and the performance of the piping
system. Factors that must be considered in the joint selection phase of the project
design include material cost, installation labor cost, degree of leakage integrity
required, periodic maintenance requirements, and specific performance requirements.
In addition, since codes do impose some limitations on joint applications,
joint selection must meet the applicable code requirements. In the paragraphs that
follow, the above-mentioned considerations will be briefly discussed for a number
of common pipe joint configurations.

Butt-welded Joints

Butt Welded Joint


Butt-welding is the most common method of joining piping used in large commercial,
institutional, and industrial piping systems. Material costs are low, but labor costs
are moderate to high due to the need for specialized welders and fitters. Long term
leakage integrity is extremely good, as is structural and mechanical strength.
The interior surface of a butt-welded piping system is smooth and continuous which
results in low pressure drop. The system can be assembled with internal weld
backing rings to reduce fit-up and welding costs, but backing rings create internal
crevices, which can trap corrosion products. In the case of nuclear piping systems,
these crevices can cause a concentration of radioactive solids at the joints, which
can lead to operating and maintenance problems. Backing rings can also lead to
stress concentration effects, which may promote fatigue cracks under vibratory or
other cyclic loading conditions. Butt-welded joints made up without backing rings
are more expensive to construct, but the absence of interior crevices will effectively
minimize ‘‘crud’’ buildup and will also enhance the piping system’s resistance to
fatigue failures. Most butt-welded piping installations are limited to NPS 21⁄₂ (DN
65) or larger. There is no practical upper size limit in butt-welded construction.
Butt-welding fittings and pipe system accessories are available down to NPS 1⁄₂ (DN
15). However, economic penalties associated with pipe end preparation and fit-up,
and special weld procedure qualifications normally preclude the use of butt-welded
construction in sizes NPS 2 (DN 50) and under, except for those special cases where
interior surface smoothness and the elimination of internal crevices are of paramount
importance. Smooth external surfaces give butt-welded construction high aesthetic
appeal.

Socket-welded Joints

Socket Welded Joint

Socket-welded construction is a good choice wherever the benefits of high leakage
integrity and great structural strength are important design considerations. Construction
costs are somewhat lower than with butt-welded joints due to the lack of
exacting fit-up requirements and elimination of special machining for butt weld end
preparation. The internal crevices left in socket-welded systems make them less
suitable for corrosive or radioactive applications where solids buildup at the joints
may cause operating or maintenance problems. Fatigue resistance is lower than
that in butt-welded construction due to the use of fillet welds and abrupt fitting
geometry, but it is still better than that of most mechanical joining methods. Aesthetic
appeal is good.

Brazed and Soldered Joints

Soldered Piping Joint


Brazing and soldering are most often used to join copper and copper-alloy piping
systems, although brazing of steel and aluminum pipe and tubing is possible. Brazing
and soldering both involve the addition of molten filler metal to a close-fitting
annular joint. The molten metal is drawn into the joint by capillary action and
solidifies to fuse the parts together. The parent metal does not melt in brazed or
soldered construction. The advantages of these joining methods are high leakage
integrity and installation productivity. Brazed and soldered joints can be made up
with a minimum of internal deposits. Pipe and tubing used for brazed and soldered
construction can be purchased with the interior surfaces cleaned and the ends
capped, making this joining method popular for medical gases and high-purity
pneumatic control installations.
Soldered joints are normally limited to near-ambient temperature systems and
domestic water supply. Brazed joints can be used at moderately elevated temperatures.
Most brazed and soldered installations are constructed using light-wall tubing;
consequently the mechanical strength of these systems is low.

Threaded or Screwed Joints




Threaded or screwed piping is commonly used in low-cost, noncritical applications
such as domestic water, fire protection, and industrial cooling water systems. Installation
productivity is moderately high, and specialized installation skill requirements
are not extensive. Leakage integrity is good for low-pressure, low-temperature
installations where vibration is not encountered. Rapid temperature changes may
lead to leaks due to differential thermal expansion between the pipe and fittings.
Vibration can result in fatigue failures of screwed pipe joints due to the high stress
intensification effects caused by the sharp notches at the base of the threads. Screwed
fittings are normally made of cast gray or malleable iron, cast brass or bronze, or
forged alloy and carbon steel. Screwed construction is commonly used with galvanized
pipe and fittings for domestic water and drainage applications. While certain
types of screwed fittings are available in up to NPS 12 (DN300), economic considerations
normally limit industrial applications to NPS 3 (DN 80). Screwed piping
systems are useful where disassembly and reassembly are necessary to accommodate
maintenance needs or process changes. Threaded or screwed joints must be used
within the limitations imposed by the rules and requirements of the applicable code.

Grooved Joints




The main advantages of the grooved joints are their ease of assembly, which results
in low labor cost, and generally good leakage integrity. They allow a moderate
amount of axial movement due to thermal expansion, and they can accommodate
some axial misalignment. The grooved construction prevents the joint from separating
under pressure. Among their disadvantages are the use of an elastomer seal,
which limits their high-temperature service, and their lack of resistance to torsional
loading. While typical applications involve machining the groove in standard wall
pipe, light wall pipe with rolled-in grooves may also be used. Grooved joints are
used extensively for fire protection, ambient temperature service water, and low pressure
drainage applications such as floor and equipment drain systems and roof
drainage conductors. They are a good choice where the piping system must be
disassembled and reassembled frequently for maintenance or process changes.

Flanged Joints



Flanged connections are used extensively in modern piping systems due to their
ease of assembly and disassembly; however, they are costly. Contributing to the
high cost are the material costs of the flanges themselves and the labor costs for
attaching the flanges to the pipe and then bolting the flanges to each other. Flanges
are normally attached to the pipe by threading or welding, although in some special
cases a flange-type joint known as a lap joint may be made by forging and machining
the pipe end. Flanged joints are prone to leakage in services that experience rapid
temperature fluctuations. These fluctuations cause high-temperature differentials
between the flange body and bolting, which eventually causes the bolt stress to
relax, allowing the joint to open up. Leakage is also a concern in high-temperature
installations where bolt stress relaxation due to creep is experienced. Periodic
retorquing of the bolted connections to reestablish the required seating pressure
on the gasket face can minimize these problems. Creep-damaged bolts in hightemperature
installations must be periodically replaced to reestablish the required
gasket seating pressure. Flanged joints are commonly used to join dissimilar materials,
e.g., steel pipe to cast-iron valves and in systems that require frequent maintenance
disassembly and reassembly. Flanged construction is also used extensively
in lined piping systems.

Compression Joints



Compression sleeve-type joints are used to join plain end pipe without special end
preparations. These joints require very little installation labor and as such result
in an economical overall installation. Advantages include the ability to absorb a
limited amount of thermal expansion and angular misalignment and the ability to
join dissimilar piping materials, even if their outside diameters are slightly different.

Disadvantages include the use of rubber or other elastomer seals, which limits their
high-temperature application, and the need for a separate external thrust-resisting
system at all turns and dead ends to keep the line from separating under pressure.
Compression joints are frequently used for temporary piping systems or systems
that must be dismantled frequently for maintenance. When equipped with the
proper gaskets and seals, they may be used for piping systems containing air, other
gases, water, and oil; in both aboveground and underground service. Small-diameter
compression fittings with all-metal sleeves may be used at elevated temperatures
and pressures, when permitted by the rules and requirements of the applicable
code. They are common in instrument and control tubing installations and other
applications where high seal integrity and easy assembly and disassembly are desirable
attributes.






PDMS Software-3D CADD System

Posted by Antony Thomas at Saturday, August 08, 2009

PDMS Software

PDMS is a specification-driven, 3-dimensional (3D) modeling system, consisting of a single relational database management program and several separate and distinct modules, each performing a unique function. Unlike many CADD systems, many of which began with a graphics package and later added database capabilities, PDMS' designers approached plant design as a true data management problem. Their solution was to establish a database core and provide methods to display the contents graphically. This approach eliminated the problem of synchronizing the graphic and data components of a graphics-based CADD system.

PDMS' database architecture imposes no unnecessary limitations on a project. It doesn't require that a project be broken into separate "sub-models" for simultaneous data input (which must subsequently be merged in order to view the entire structure). Instead, several designers can be working on the model at one time, and each can view the entire project or a selected portion of it as he builds the elements in his part of the model. With PDMS, project management can monitor the progress of a project at any point in the design cycle without disrupting the work.

From information provided by supplier drawings, engineering sketches, piping layouts, and mechanical flow diagrams (MFDs), designers build equipment, structures, and piping into the PDMS database at full size. As work progresses, operators routinely monitor data consistency via the Datacon module or via the interactive design module. This function ensures that all components are connected and that all connection types are compatible. It also ensures that lines have consistent bore and alignment. In addition to data consistency, the system is used to check for interference.

The Clasher facility checks any designated section against the model to detect "hard" clashes (such as pipe hitting cable trays) and "soft" clashes (such as brace members protruding into walkways). Maintenance areas used for rodding or pulling tubes are designated as restricted areas, and any intruding objects can be identified. The system can also detect lines that are too close for insulation application and hand wheels with insufficient clearance for operation.

Like its plastic counterpart, the computer model is a true representation of the project. Each component is a distinct element in the PDMS database. Unlike its plastic counterpart, however, the computer model can be modified to accommodate design changes and to correct errors without having to start over each time such an error is found. Additionally, the computer model provides the drawings and the documentation required to fabricate and construct the facility.

At any point in the project, "snapshots" can be taken of the model. These snapshots can take the form of a perspective view of the structure, a report listing the completed lines, a preliminary material takeoff, an input file to the dynamic model review program, or any other graphic or data report that may be required. Once the model or a designated section of the model is complete, the program can produce the following:

  • Piping isometric drawings, with material lists and cut lengths
  • Material takeoff reports formatted for input into JRME's estimating, ordering, and tracking system
  • Conventional piping plans and section drawings
  • Descriptive drawings to clarify congested or unique areas
  • Overall perspective views for fabrication/construction planning
  • Input files for the model review program (Review)
  • Reports formatted for input to center-of-gravity programs
  • Drawing files for use in AutoCAD
  • Weld count reports
  • Input files to the pipe-stress analysis program
  • Structural plans and elevation drawings
  • Exploded sub-assembly drawings to aid fabrication/construction.

Completion of the project's design phase doesn't signal the end of the model's usefulness, because the database can be transferred to CADCentre's Review software to allow real-time, color-shaded, walk-through plant review. Review was designed to be operated by people with no PDMS experience. It is mouse-driven and has pop-up menus that allow the user to "walk" down plant corridors well before the facility is constructed. It can be effectively used for orientation and operator training (since it allows users to get inside the plant) and can be projected onto a screen for several people to see at once. An added benefit is that lines, equipment, nozzles, and even support steel can be located by name, and member names can be obtained by clicking on the element.

There are many advantages to assembling a 3D numerical model. All the justifications for building a plastic model apply for the 3D model, with the added benefit that the 3D model costs much less and its cost is included in the design phase. Additionally, the 3D model helps ensure an error-free design by producing accurate drawings and reports. However, the two most important benefits are significantly reduced fabrication and erection errors and faster startup time.

PDMS Lesson-1 (Model Editor)

PDMS Commands

PDMS Latest Commands

Piping PDMS Designer - Jakarta

Piping Arrangement Around Piperack

Posted by Antony Thomas at Wednesday, July 15, 2009

Piping Arrangement Around Piperack

1.Gathering of Information

-Plot plan
-Piping and Instrumentation diagram
-Check of items to be installed on the piperack
-Plant layout specification
-Client specification

2.Conceptual Layout

-Random arrangement of  piping in the piperack
-Tentative determination of length of piping arranged
-Indicate data of line number, etc. in the piping arrangement
-Preparation of piperack information

3.Detailed Piping Arrangement

-Study on piping arrangement
-Measure on thermal expansion
-Connection with equipment piping and adjustment of arrangement
-Preparation of detailed cross section drawing
-Preparation of piperack information

4.Factors to be Considered in Piping Arrangement

-Safety
-Accessibility
-Maintainability
-Constructability
-Economy

5.Criteria for Piping Arrangement

-Consideration on groupings of pipelines and items to be installed
-Consideration on size of pipelines
-Consideration on the design condition of fluid in pipelines
-Consideration on the necessity of expansion loop

6.Determination of Pipe Rack Width

-Pipe spacing
-Thermal displacement in piping
-Space to be secured for operating valves and instruments and also for maintenance
-Space for the width of the duct, and direction of cable withdrawal
-Space for future installation

7.Basis of Height Determination

-Aisle way for mobile equipment and headroom clearance
-Equipment clearance under pipe rack
-Equipment installed above a rack

 

Related posts

PIPE RACK / WAYS & RACK PIPING Training

PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

Labels:

PROCESS PLANT / UTILITY TERMINOLOGY

Posted by Antony Thomas at Wednesday, June 03, 2009

PROCESS PLANT TERMINOLOGY


Process Plant Terms



Refinery


A refinery is a plant that takes crude oil as its feed or charge stock and converts it into the many petroleum products that people use; Some of these are gasoline, jet-fuel, kerosene, butane, propane, fuel oil and asphalt.

Hydrocarbon


The hydrocarbon compound contains hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbon compounds are numerous and form the basis for petroleum products. They exist mostly as vapors and liquids but may also be solid. In general, piping systems refineries and gasoline plants transport hydrocarbons or utilities.

Gasoline Plant


The gasoline plant takes natural gas (a vapor) as its charge stock and separates the vapor’s heavier products out and re-injects the lighter gas (methane) into a pipeline or perhaps into the gas field it came from. Again gasoline, propane and butane are extracted as products. But, since a gasoline plant starts with a vapor, the heavier hydrocarbons do not exist in its charge stock; so heavier products cannot be made. Asphalt s one of the products that is classified as a heavy hydrocarbon and is not produced in a gasoline plant.

Chemical Plant


The chemical plant takes semi-refined products from refineries and gasoline plants and reprocess them, in this case it is also act as a Petrochemical plant. Sometimes blending in other products and converts them into certain chemicals which may be sold as a finished consumer product. One such product widely demanded today is plastic. Chemical plants make many ingredients in modern medicines.

Tank Farm


The tank farm is the area that contains the huge storage tanks of the refinery and gasoline or chemical plants. The tanks are usually isolated from the main processing units in case of fire. They may be 200° or more in diameter and will contain the plant’s charge stock for several days. The tanks also store the plant’s products, until the shipment goes to the consumer.

Flare Systems


The flare system transports vapors (via a piping system) to a flare stack which is very tall and has a flame burning at the top. This system burns waste gases and also collects and burns relief valve discharges. At night the flare stack usually stands out -sending flames high into the air. This is waste gas burning. if it did not burr, it would pollute the air.

Instruments


Instruments tell the operator what is happening inside a vessel or pipe. There are four basic groups of instruments, namely temperature, pressure, flow and level.

Fluid


Most students may think of fluid as liquid, but it can also be a vapor. Fluid means something that will flow-something not solid. Piping directs fluid flow.


Process Plant Utilities:



The utility is a refinery’s service portion. While a home has water, gas and electricity, a refinery or other plant has many more, some of which are below.

Steam


Steam services many plant items. Heat generates steam in fired boilers or heater which will make many different steam pressures and temperatures. They apply heat and convert condensate (pure water) to steam (a vapor). The steam then goes to the different plant units in the piping systems which use the steam.

Many students think they have seen steam, but they haven’t. They cannot actually see steam: it is invisible. What they have seen is the condensate condensing out of the steam. That is where the term condensate” comes from.

Condensate


As the energy in steam is used, the steam turns to condensate. Another piping system collects this condensate, which is returned under a row pressure to a collection point and is pumped through the boiler tubing and converted to steam again. So the condensate is in a constant cycle from steam to condensate to steam.

Fuel Oil


Fuel oil is another utility that refineries make and partially consume. It is also sold as a product to heat homes and fires furnaces in private business.

Instrument Air


A utility that operates the plant instruments is instrument air. A piping system distributes this air, which has been compressed and dried to remove, all its moisture, as the moisture would harm the instruments.

Utility Air


Utility air drives air motors and blow air on objects to clean them, such as some barbers blow cut hair off customers with air hoses.

Cooling Water


Cooling water cool various streams in a plant. The water starts at a cooling tower and is pumped through a piping system to exchangers, which exchange heat. it comes out boner-much like water from a hot water heater in a home. This water then returns to the cooling tower, which cools the water. and then is ready for more circulation into the unit. Like the steam and condensate system above, this is a constantly c system.

Drains


An underground utility collects drains from funnels or catch basins and, in a separate piping system, transports them to a disposal point. Since no pressure is in this drain piping, the pipes must slope to cause flow. This slope is usually 1 foot per 100 feet of tine or greater.
It can be very difficult to design drain systems. Since they run underground, they must miss all other underground items. The drainage system must twist and turn to miss all the process equipment foundations.
Most plants also have more than one drain system. They may have an oily water sewer a storm water sewer and an acid sewer. The oily water sewer handles the oily drips and drains. The storm water sewer collects surface runoffs from rains. The acid sewer collects acid drains and drips. There may be many other types of separate drain systems.


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PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

Posted by Antony Thomas at Thursday, May 28, 2009

plant
 
PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

1. What factors to consider for site selection?
Ans : District classification, Transportation facilities, Manpower
availability, industrial infrastructure, community infrastructure, availability
of raw water, effluent disposal, availability of power, availability of
industrial gas, site size and nature, ecology and pollution.

2. What are different standards?
Ans : Most commonly use standards are as follows:
Sr. Standard Description
1. ANSI B18.2 Square and hexagola head bolts and nuts
2. ANSI B16.3 Malleable iron threaded fittings
3. ANSI B16.4 Cast iron threaded fittings.
4. ANSI B16.9 Steel buttwelding fittings
5. ANSI B16.11 Forged steel socketwelding and threaded fittings
6. ANSI B16.25 Buttwelding ends
7. ANSI B16.28 Short elbow radius and returns
8. MSS-SP-43 Stainless steel buttweld fittings
9. MSS-SP-83 Pipe Unions
10. API 605 Large diameter carbon steel flanges
11. ANSI B16.1 Cast iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings
12. ANSI B16.5 Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings
13. ANSI B16.47 Large diameter steel pipe flanges and flanged fitts.
14. ANSI B16.20 Ring joint gaskets and grooves for pipe flanges
15. ANSI B16.21 Non metallic gaskets for pipe flanges
16. API 601 Metallic gasket for refinery piping.
17. API 5L Specification for line pipe.
18. ANSI B16.10 Welded and seamless wrought steel pipes
19. ANSI B36.19 Welded and seamless austenitic stainless steel pipe
20. ANSI B16.10 Face to face and end to end dimensions of valves
21. ANSI B16.34 Steel valves, flanged and buttwelding ends.

3. What are various temporary closures for lines?
Ans : Line blind valve, line blind, spectacle plate, double block and bleed,
blind flanges replacing a removable spool.

4. Where jacked screwed flange is used ?
Ans : For spectacle discs, one flange is jacked screw flange. This flange
has two jacked screws 180 degree apart which are used to create
sufficient space between flange for easy removal and placement of line
blind or spectacle blind.

5. What is double block and bleed?
Ans : Two valves with bleed ring in between with a bleed valve connected
to the hole of bleed ring.

6. Where blind flange is used ?
Ans : It is used with view to future expansion of the piping system, or for
cleaning, inspection etc.


TOWERS

7. What are crude oil ranges?
Ans : Crude oil BP Range: 100F-1400F, lightest material: Butene below
100F, Heavier materials- upto 800F, Residue above 800F.

8. What is batch shell process?
Ans : feed, heat,condense,heat more,condense, low quality.

9. What are types of towers?
Ans : Stripper, Vacuum tower, trayed, packed towers.

10. What is chimney tray?
Ans : It’s a solid plate with central chimney section, used at drawoff
sections of the tower.

11. What factors to consider while setting tower elevation?
Ans : NPSH, Operator access, Maintenance access, Minimum clearance,
reboiler type , common area, type of support, Tower dimensions, type of
head, bottom outlet size, foundation details, minimum clearances.

12. How to locate tower maintenance access nozzles ?
Ans : At bottom, top and intermediate sections of tower, must not be at
the downcomer section of tower and in front of internal piping.

13. How to locate feed nozzle ?
Ans : Must be oriented in specific area of tray by means of internal
piping.

14. How to locate temperature and pressure instruments ?
Ans : Temperature in liquid space, at downcomer side and pressure in
vapor space, in area except downcomer sector.
 
If you find this questionnaire is useful, please share with your friends using share button on the left side.

SEE ALSO:
PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 1 OF 3)
PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 2 OF 3)

COMPRESSORS & DRUMS PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

Posted by Antony Thomas at Tuesday, May 05, 2009

PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE


COMPRESSORS


1. What are the types of compressors?
Ans : Positive Displacement, Centrifugal and Axial, rotary screw, rotary
vane, rotary lobe, dynamic, liquid ring compressors.

2. What are types of compressor drives?
Ans : Electric motor, gas turbine, steam turbine and gas engine.

3. How Centrifugal compressors work ?
Ans : Highspeed impellers increase the kinetic energy of the gas,
converting this energy into higher pressures in a divergent outlet passage
called a diffuser. Large volume of gas at moderate pressure.

4. What are types of steam turbine and why are they popular?
Ans : Condensing and non-condensing, Popular because can convert
large amounts of heat energy into mechanical work very efficiently.

5. Where gas turbine drive is used ?
Ans : Desserts and offshore platforms where gas is available, for gas
transmission, gas lift, liquid pumping, gas re-injection and process
compressors.

6. What are the auxillary equipments of compressor?
Ans : Lube oil consoles, Seal oil consoles, Surface condensers,
Condensate pump, Air blowers, Inlet air filters, Wast heat system,
compressor suction drum, knock out pot, Pulsation dampner, volume
bottles, Inter and after coolers.

7. What are the types of seal oil system?
Ans : Gravity and pressurized.

8. What factors to be considered while designing compressor housing?
Ans : Operation, Maintenance, Climate conditions, Safety, Economics.

9. What are the compressor housing design points?
Ans : Floor elevation, building width, building elevation, hook centerline
elevation.

10. What are the types of compressor cases?
Ans : Horizontal split case, Vertical split case.

11. What are compressor suction line requirements ?
Ans : Minimum 3D straight pipe between elbow and inlet nozzle,
increases based on inlet piping layout. 4D


12. What are necessary parts of inlet line of compressor?
Ans : Block Valve, Strainer, Break out flanges in both inlet and outlet to
remove casing covers, Straightening vane in inlet line if not enough
straight piece in inlet line available, PSV in interstage line and in
discharge line before block valve.

13. What points to be considered for reciprocating compressor piping
layout?
Ans : High pulsation, simple line as low to grade as possible for
supporting, analog study, all branches close to line support and on top,
Isolate line support from adjacent compressor or building foundations

14. What are the types of compressor shelters?
Ans : On ground with no shelter, Open sided structure with a roof,
Curtain wall structure (Temperate climates), Open elevated installation,
Elevated multicompressor structure.

DRUMS



15. What are drum internals?
Ans : Demister pads, Baffles, Vortex breakers, Distribution piping.

16. What are drum elevation requirements?
Ans : NPSH, minimum clearance, common platforming, maintenance,
operator access.

17. What are drum supports?
Ans : Skirt for large drums, legs, lugs, saddles for horizontal drums.

18. What are necessary nozzles for non-pressure vessel?
Ans : Inlet, outlet, vent, manhole, drain, overflow, agitator, temperature
element, level instrument, and steamout connection.

19. What are necessary nozzles for pressure vessel?
Ans : Inlet, outlet, manhole, drain, pressure relief, agitator, level guage,
pressure gauge, temperature element, vent and for steamout.

20. What is preferred location for level instrument nozzles?
Ans : Away from the turbulence at the liquid outlet nozzle, although the
vessel is provided with a vortex breaker, instrument should be set in the
quiet zone of the vessel for example on the opposite side of the weir or
baffle or near the vapor outlet end.

21. What is preferred location for process nozzles on drum?
Ans : Minimum from the tangent line.


22. What is preferred location for steam out nozzle on drum?
Ans : At the end opposite to the maintenance access.

23. What is preferred location for vent ?
Ans : AT the top section of drum at the end opposite the steam out
connecton.

24. What is preferred location for pressure instrument nozzle on drum?
Ans : Must be anywhere in the vapor space, preferable at the top section
of drum

25. What is preferred location for temperature instrument?
Ans : Must be in liquid space, preferably on the bottom section of drum.

26. What is preferred location for drain?
Ans : Must be located at the bottom section of drum.


See Also:


PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 1 OF 3)


PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 2 OF 3)


PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 3 OF 3)

PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 3 OF 3)

Posted by Antony Thomas at Wednesday, April 15, 2009

51. What is regular pattern plug valve?
Ans : Rectangular port, area almost equal to pipe bore, smooth transition
from round body to rectangular port, for minimum pressure loss.
52. What are short pattern plug valve?
Ans : Valves with face to face dimension of gate valve, as a alternative to
gate valve.
53. What are ventury pattern plug valve?
Ans : Change of section through the body throat so graded to have
ventury effect, minimum pressure loss.
54. What are inverted plug design valve?
Ans : Plug valve with taper portion up of plug. For 8” and higher size.
55. What is pressure balanced plug valve?
Ans : With holes in port top and bottom connecting two chambers on top
and bottom of plug, to reduce turning effort.
56. What are Teflon sleeved plug valve?
Ans : PTFE sleeve between plug and body of valve, low turning effort,
minimum friction, temperature limitation, anti static design possible.
57. What are permasil plug valve?
Ans : Plug valves with Teflon seat instead of sleeves, for on off
applications, can handle clean viscous and corrosive liqiuids, Graphite seat
for high temperature applications. Drip tight shut off not possible.
58. What are eccentric plug valve?
Ans : Off center plug, corrosive and abrasive service, on off action,
moves into and away from seat eliminating abrasive wear.
59. What is dimensional standard for plug valve?
Ans : API 599.
60. What is pinch valve?
Ans : Similar to diaphragm valve, with sleeves of rubber or PTFE, which
get sqeezed to control or stop the flow, Cast iron body, for very low
service pressures like isolation of hose connections, manufacture
standard.
61. What is needle valve?
Ans :Full pyramid disc, same design as globe valve, smaller sizes, sw or
threaded, flow control, disc can be integral with stem, inside screw,
borged or barstock body and bonnet, manufacturers standard.
62. How to install a globe valve ?
Ans : Globe valve should be installed such that the flow is from the
underside of the disk, Usually flow direction is marked on the globe valve.
63. What are globe valve port types?
Ans : Full port: More than 85% of bore size, Reducer port: One size less
than the connected pipe.
64. What are globe valve disk types?
Ans :Flat faced type for positive shutoff, loose plug type for plug renewal
or needle type for finer control.
65. What are characteristics of globe valve stem?
Ans : Always rising design, with disk nut at the lower end and handwheel
at upper end.
66. What are types of globe valve?
Ans : Angle globe valve, plug type disc globe valve, wye-body globe
valve, composite disc globe valve, double disc globe valve.
67. What is angle globe valve?
Ans : Ends at 90 degree to save elbow, higher pressure drop.
68. Where plug type disc globe valve is used?
Ans : For severe regulating service with gritty liquids such as boiler
feedwater and for blow off service.
69. Where WYE body globe valve is used ?
Ans : In line ports with stem emerging at 45 degree, for erosive fluids
due to smoother flow pattern.
70. What is double disc globe valve ?
Ans : Has two discs bearing on separate seats spaced apart, on a single
shaft, for low torque, used for control valves.
71. What are port types for gate valves?
Ans : Full port and reduced port. Default is reduced bore. Full port has to
be specified in bom.
72. How to close a gate valve ?
Ans :Turn the handwheel in clockwise direction.
73. What is lantern ring?
Ans : It’s a collection point to drain off any hazardous seepages or as a
point where lubricant can be injected, it is in the middle of packing rings.
74. What are types of gate valves?
Ans : Solid plane wedge, solid flexible wedge, split wedge, double disc
paralles seats, double disc wedge, single disc single seat gate or slide,
single disc parallel seats, plug gate valve.
75. What are the types of bonnets?
Ans : Bolted bonnet, bellow sealed bonnet, screwed on bonnet, union
bonnets, A U-bolt and clamp type bonnet, breechlock bonnet, pressure
seal bonnet.

SEE ALSO:
PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 1 OF 3)
PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 2 OF 3)

PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 2 OF 3)

Posted by Antony Thomas at

26. What is BlowDown Valve?
Ans Refers to a plug type disc globe valve used for removing sludge and
sedimentary matter from the bottom of boiler drums, vessels, driplegs
etc.
27. What is Breather Valve?
Ans: A special self acting valve installed on storage tanks etc. to release
vapor or gas on slight increase of internal pressure ( in the region of ½ to
3 ounces per square inch).
28. What is Drip Valve?
Ans: A drain valve fitted to the bottom of a driplet to permit blowdown.
29. What is Flap Valve?
Ans: A non return valve having a hinged disc or rubber or leather flap
used for low pressure lines.
30. What is Hose Valve?
Ans: A gate or globe valve having one of its ends externally threaded to
one of the hose thread standards in use in the USA. These valves are
used for vehicular and firewater connections.
31. What is Paper-Stock Valve?
Ans: A single disc single seat gate valve (Slide gate) with knife edged or
notched disc used to regulate flow of paper slurry or other fibrous slurry.
32. What is Root Valve?
Ans: A valve used to isolate a pressure element or instrument from a line
or vessel, or a valve placed at the beginning of a branch form the
header.
33. What is Slurry valve?
Ans: A knife edge valve used to control flow of non-abrasive slurries.
34. What is Spiral sock valve?
Ans: A valve used to control flow of powders by means of a twistable
fabric tube or sock.
35. What is Throttling valve?
Ans: Any valve used to closely regulate flow in the just-open position.
36. What is Vacuum breaker?
Ans: A special self-acting valve or nay valve suitable for vacuum service,
operated manually or automatically, installed to admit gas (usually
atmospheric air) into a vacuum or low-pressure space. Such valves are
installed on high points of piping or vessels to permit draining and
sometimes to prevent siphoning.
37. What is Quick acting valve ?
Ans: Any on/off valve rapidly operable, either by manual lever, spring or
by piston, solenoid or lever with heat-fusible link releasing a weight which
in falling operates the valve. Quick acting valves are desirable in lines
conveying flammable liquids. Unsuitable for water or for liquid service in
general without a cushioning device to protect piping from shock.
38. What is diverting valve ?
Ans : This valve switch flow from one main line to two different outlets.
WYE type and pneumatic control type with no moving part.
39. What is sampling valve?
Ans : Usually of needle or globe pattern, placed in branch line for the
purpose of drawing all samples of process material thru the branch.
40. What are blow off valve?
Ans : It is a variety of globe valve confirming with boiler code
requirements and specially designed for boiler blowoff service. WYE
pattern and angle type, used to remove air and other gases from boilers
etc.
41. What is relief valve?
Ans : Valve to relieve excess pressure in liquids in situations where full
flow discharge is not required, when release of small volume of liquid
would rapidly lower pressure.
42. What is safety valve?
Ans : Rapid opening(popping action) full flow valve for air and other
gases.
43. What is foot valve?
Ans : Valve used to maintain a head of water on the suction side of sump
pump, basically a lift check valve with integrated strainer.
44. What is float valve?
Ans : Used to control liquid level in tanks, operated by float, which rises
with liquid level and opens the valve to control water level. It can also
remove air from system, in which case, air flows out of system in valve
open condition, but when water reaches valve, float inside valve raises to
close the valve and stop flow of water. Used in drip legs.
45. What are flush bottom valves?
Ans : Special type of valves used to drain out the piping, reactors and
vessels, attached on pad type nozzles.
46. What are types of flush bottom valves?
Ans : Valves with discs opening into the tank and valves with disks into
the valve.
47. What are the uses of three-way valve?
Ans : Alternate connection of the two supply lines to a common delivery
vise versa, isolating one safety valve, division of flow with isolation
facility.
48. What are uses of four way valve?
Ans : Reversal of pump suction and delivery, By pass of strainer or
meter, reversal of flow through filter, heat exchanger or dryer.
49. What is metal seated lubricated plug valve?
Ans : A plug valve with no plastic material, where grease is applied to
contacting surfaces for easy operation.
50. What are three patterns of plug valve design?
Ans : Regular pattern, short pattern and ventury pattern.

SEE ALSO:
PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 1 OF 3)
PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 3 OF 3)

PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 1 OF 3)

Posted by Antony Thomas at

PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE
1. What are the steps in selection of valve?
Ans : What to handle, liquid, gas or powder, fluid nature, function,
construction material, disc type, stem type, how to operate, bonnet type,
body ends, delivery time, cost, warranty.
2. What are functions of valves?
Ans : Isolation, regulation, non-return and special purposes.
3. What are isolating valves?
Ans : Gate, ball, plug, piston, diaphragm, butterfly, pinch.
4. What are regulation valves?
Ans : Globe, needle, butterfly, diaphragm, piston, pinch.
5. What are non-return valves?
Ans : check valve,
6. What are special valves?
Ans : multi-port, flush bottom, float, foot, pressure relief, breather.
7. What materials are used for construction of valves?
Ans : Cast iron, bronze, gun metal, carbon steel, stainless steel, alloy
carbon steel, polypropylene and other plastics, special alloys.
8. What is trim?
Ans : Trim is composed of stem, seat surfaces, back seat bushing and
other small internal parts that normally contact the surface fluid.
9. Which standard specifies trim numbers for valve ?
Ans : API 600.
10. What are wetted parts of valve?
Ans : All parts that come in contact with surface fluid are called wetted
parts.
11. What is wire drawing?
Ans : This term is used to indicate the premature erosion of the valve
seat caused by excessive velocity between seat and seat disc, when valve
is not closed tightly.
12. What is straight through valve?
Ans : Valve in which the closing operation of valve is achieved by
90degrees turn of the closing element.
13. What pressure tests are carried out on valves?
Ans : Shell-hydrostatic, seat-hydrostatic, seat-pneumatic
14. What are available valve operators?
Ans : Handlever, handwheel, chain operator, gear operator, powered
operator likes electric motor, solenoid, pneumatic and hydraulic
operators, Quick acting operators for non-rotary valves (handle lift).
15. What are two types of ball valve?
Ans : Full port design and regular port design, according to type of seat,
soft seat and metal seat.
16. What are ball valve body types?
Ans : Single piece, double piece, three piece, the short pattern, long
pattern, sandwitch and flush bottom design.
17. Why ball valves are normally flanged?
Ans : Because of soft seat PTFE which can damage during welding.
18. What are butterfly valve types?
Ans : Double flange type, wafer lug type and wafer type.
19. What are types of check valve?
Ans : Lift check valves and swing check valves.
20. What are non-slam check valves?
Ans : Swing check valve, conventional check valve, wafer check valve,
tilting disc check valve, piston check valve, stop check valve, ball check
valve.
21. Where stop check valve is used ?
Ans : In stem generation by multiple boilers, where a valve is inserted
between each boiler and the main steam header. It can be optionally
closed automatically or normally.
22. Where diaphragm valves are used ?
Ans : Used for low pressure corrosive services as shut off valves.
23. What is Barstock Valve?
Ans: Any valve having a body machined from solid metal (barstock).
Usually needle or globe type.
24. What is BIBB Valve?
Ans: A small valve with turned down end, like a faucet.
25. What is Bleed Valve?
Ans: Small valve provided for drawing off liquid.

SEE ALSO:
PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 2 OF 3)
PIPING QUESTIONNAIRE - VALVE (PART 3 OF 3)

PDMS Lesson-1 (Model Editor)

Posted by Antony Thomas at Monday, March 23, 2009

PIPE RACK / WAYS & RACK PIPING Training

Posted by Antony Thomas at

uINTRODUCTION
u
u
PIPE RACK
§Pipe Rack design criteria
nShapes
nFuture Space
nWidth of Pipe Rack
nClearance
n
Pipe Rack Loading
uRACK PIPING
nPositions of Lines (Process & Utilities)
nHot Lines & Cold Lines
nBigger Size Lines
nPipe Spacing
nAnchor Bay
nUnit Battery Limit
nExpansion Loops
nPipe Route
n
Trays
n
 
 

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